I want to know more <Water & Water Environment>
About the interim report of "Information provision series on water supply in Indonesia"
JISCOWAPINDO strives to collect information on water supply in Indonesia, and has shared information with all members through the website. The material was collected and searched by Secretary Takashi Kojima in collaboration with members Takao Tadokoro and Toshio Masuoka on the Internet using the keywords "Indonesia AND Water Supply", "Indonesia AND Water Environment" and English "Indonesia Water Supply". This is a summary of the latest articles that may be helpful. Serialization on the website began in April 2018, and a total of 130 pieces of information were posted in the two years (25 times) until April 2020.
When considering Indonesia, one must be aware of the characteristics of the land, the population and economic development as apremise. The country of Indonesia is composed of 13,466 large and small islands that straddle the equator, spans 5,110 km east and west, and has the largest number of islands in the world (as an island country).
During the 75 years since its independence in 1945 to the present day, Indonesia has grown significantly. The population at independence was 45 million, but by 1970 it had grown to 100 million. Over the next 30 years, this number more than doubled to reach238 million in 2010. The growth rate for the period 2000-2010 was 1.49%. The current population is the fourth largest in the world withmore than 264 million people.
Economic growth was strong. Despite the political changes and economic challenges of the Asian financial crisis of 1998/99 and population growth, GDP(gross domestic product per capita) rose from $ 2,952 in 2002 to $ 4,394 in 2008, which was an increase ofalmost 50% in six years. (2018 value is 3,893 USD)
Also, as in most Asian countries, increased economic activity in urban areas has driven Indonesia's economic growth. This caused a large-scale migration from rural to urban areas, and this rapid urbanization doubled the city's population from 56 million to about 128million between 1990 and 2010. The stress on water resources in the urban areas of the two major islands of Java and Sumatra, where more than 80% of the current population lives, is particularly high. As a result of the significant increase in water demand, water demand exceeds natural availability of supply. Similarly, problems such as pollution, landscape erosion, and damage to groundwater are increasing. (ADB 2012 data complemented by Wikipedia)
Therefore, in order to think about Indonesia, it is necessary to capture Indonesia from a compound perspective. Of the articles dealt with in the "Indonesia Water Supply Information Series", 75 articles include some regional information. Twenty-four of them cover content related to Jakarta, while others cover cities such as Bandung, Medan, Semarang, Tangerang, and Bogor, and have spread toBali, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi. The water pollution of the Citarum River and the problems of Lake Toba are also taken up. It also covers the present conditions and issues, the causes and conditions of land subsidence in Jakarta, the national budget for infrastructure development and the project budget of international aid agencies.
In this way, 130 pieces of information cover a wide range of fields, but if you expand your view to the source (there are many links toURLs), you can see the depth of issues in Indonesia.
Here, I would like to introduce these information by topic(in Japanese only but click top bar).
(1) Progress from privatization of water supply in Jakarta toremunicipalisation
(2) Decision and background of Indonesia's capital relocation
(3) Land subsidence problem in Jakarta
(4) Current status of water use in Jakarta
(5) Water pollution of the Citarum River and countermeasures
(6) Drought and water shortage problems
(7) Interest in Indonesia from the world
(8) Current status and issues of PDAM
(9) National budget for infrastructure development and project budgetof international aid agencies
(10) Demand for water purifiers
(11) Plastic tube market
(12) Other topics
The editor personally experienced two long-term assignments in Indonesia in the 1980s and 1990s respectively for two years. Theformer was the heyday of Suharto, where President Suharto focused on the development of infrastructure to support the backbone ofthe national economy and continued stable economic growth, and the latter was the ending stage of the president, and variouscontradictions became apparent. It was finally time for Suharto to retire president.
After the Asian currency crisis of 1997, a wave of democratization and decentralization struck, and the political economy wastemporarily confused in Indonesia, but under President Yudhoyono, who was elected by the first direct election in 2004, Indonesia is again back on track stabilizing the economic growth. Since the mid-2000s, per capita income has also improved, making Indonesia theonly G20 member state in ASEAN in 2008.
In this interim compilation of the "Indonesia Water Supply Information Series," I revisited a total of 130 pieces of information posted onthe website for two years from April 2018 to March 2020. I was impressed again with the recent remarkable economic development andthe maintained diversity of Indonesia through the work this time.
By the way, according to a poll on Japan in seven ASEAN countries conducted by IPSOS Hong Kong in 2014, 95% of Indonesianrespondents said, "There is a friendly relationship between the two countries, and they are reliable friends." Also, 92% said that "Japan's economic and technical cooperation helped to develop their own country" (according to JICA data). It is no exaggeration to say thatthis kind of consciousness is the same on the Japanese side, and that most people who have something to do with Indonesia have afeeling of affection for Indonesia.
The deepening of human resources exchanges and mutual understanding cultivated over many years is an irreplaceable asset for bothcountries, and both countries will continue to be good partners in the future, such as marine development, disaster prevention, socialsecurity, and urbanization. It is expected to address not only common issues but also issues in the Asian region and the internationalcommunity, such as climate change countermeasures.
In this era, it is even more important for us Japanese to make efforts to know more about Indonesia. We hope that the information in this article will be useful to those who share the same desire to know more about Indonesia. We would like to express our deepgratitude to Mr. Takashi Kojima, Mr. Takao Tadokoro and Mr. Toshio Masuoka, who have been instrumental in organizing the informationfor this series and in organizing the interim report.
（May 2020, Sombo Yamamura）